Scientific name Toona calantas
Family name Meliaceae
Local name Place
Ample Batanes
Lanipga Bicol, Cebu
Bantinan Cagayan, Mt. Province
Danupra Zambales, Ilocos Norte

Conservation Status


DAO 2017-11
Outer bark yellowish to dark brown, lenticillate when young, deeply fissured to flaky when mature; inner bark light brown
Leaves odd-pinnate, alternate or spiral, 30-50 cm long, often clustered at ends of twigs; leaflets opposite, oblong or broadly lanceolate, about 12 x 5 cm, base truncately rounded and inequilateral, apex acute to acuminate; lateral nerves 10-15 pairs
Flowers small, in axillary or terminal panicles.
Fruit is a capsule, ellipsoid or oblongoid, 3-4 cm long, subwoody, dehiscing form apex towards the base, the outer surface lenticelled, with a 5-ridged central column; seeds densely packed, 20-30 x 3-6 mm, unequally winged on each end.
Flowering June-August Fruiting September-November Seed collection February-march
MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL: 1500-2300 mm (60-90 in) RAINFALL PATTERN: It grows best in climates with bimodal and uniform rainfall patterns. DRY SEASON DURATION (consecutive months with <40 mm [1.6 in] rainfall): 0-4 months, very drought resistant. MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE: 26-27°C (79-81°F) MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE OF HOTTEST MONTH: 23-33°C (73-91°F) MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE OF COLDEST MONTH: 20-31°C (68-88°F) MINIMUM TEMPERATURE TOLERATED: 17°C (63°F) SOIL TEXTURE: The tree grows in light, medium, and heavy soils. SOIL DRAINAGE: I. bijuga can grow in soils with free drainage as well as soils with impeded drainage and seasonally waterlogged soils. SOIL ACIDITY: It tolerates soils with neutral and alkaline acidity (pH 6.1-7.4+). SPECIAL SOIL TOLERANCES: I. bijuga tolerates shallow, saline, sodic, and limestone (calcareous) soils and is commonly found growing on almost soilless limestone outcrops Environmental tolerances of the species is summarized below: DROUGHT: It seems to be particularly tolerant of drought, especially the physiological drought characteristic of well drained, rocky limestone habitats. FULL SUN: It grows well in full sun in exposed situations. SHADE: The tree tolerates 0-75% shade. FROST: I. bijuga does not tolerate freezing temperatures. WATERLOGGING: It seems to withstand a high degree of waterlogging, as it is a common component on the inner margins of mangroves and in riparian vegetation. SALT SPRAY: It has a high tolerance of salt spray, although it is rarely found in the outermost zone of coastal vegetation. WIND: I. bijuga is very resistant to wind damage and well adapted to strong gusts in coastal locations and on rock outcrops. OTHER: The tree withstands termite attack. (Reference: Thaman et al. 2006)
Primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
LUZON: B tanes, Cagayan to Sorsogon, Mindoro VISAYAS: Negros, Cebu, Leyte, Samar, MINDANAO.

SEEDS. Dipterocarp seeds are recalcitrant and easily lose viability when dried or stored long. During seed year, dipterocarp seeds can be propagated as follows: sow freshly collected dewinged seeds in plastic bags with 1:1 dipterocarp forest soil and river sand; keep in shade for 1.5-2 months and regularly water; gradually expose to full light and reduce watering to harden them prior to outplanting. WILDLINGS. Dipterocarps could be propagated using wildlings collected from the natural forest (caution – DO NOT OVERCOLLECT; leave adequate number of wildlings for natural regeneration). Collect newly germinated wildlings with 2-4 leaves; bigger wildlings requires much care, difficult handling and storage and has higher mortality; transport wildlings quickly and protect from desiccation by wrapping in bundles, mud puddling the roots then placing them in banana sheaths, or plastic bags or burlap sacks and tied; for big wildlings (15-50 cm) leaves are trimmed to reduce transpiration; roots are pruned and dipped in rooting hormone (IBA at 10-100 ppm); wildlings should be immediately potted and placed in a recovery chamber where adequate shade and water is provided. It is protected from desiccation and too much light by plastic sheets and shading nets. Maintain wildlings in recovery chamber for about 2 months then gradually harden. CUTTINGS. During seed off years, dipterocarps can be propagated vegetatively following the non-mist system by Pollisco (undated): secure healthy cuttings from nursery grown seedlings/wildlings or hedge garden; cut the stems of stockplants using sharp pruning shear leaving at least 2 nodes on the stumps of the seedlings; place cut stems in a pail or tray half-filled with water; remove the tip, and divide the rest into 2-node cuttings and make a slanting cut at the base of the cuttings; cut the leaves into half; soak the cuttings in 200 ppm Benlate solution for 1 hr; scrape 1 cm of the base and dip in appropriate concentration of IBA for one hour; plant in plastic bags with a sun-sterilized media of 50:50 coconut coir and river sand; the non-mist system is constructed as follows: use a 62 x 25 cm plastic bag and 3/16 wire; use the wire to have a support structure to fit in the tray or plastic bags with cuttings; seal the plastic bag to maintain humid conditions; depending on species, cuttings are kept for 2-4 months or until lignified roots are formed; cuttings are watered using mist sprayer weekly; subsequently, rooted cuttings are transplanted to plastic bags with a 1:1 dipterocarp forest soil and river sand medium and place transplants in a plastic tent for about a month; cuttings are hardened by gradually moving them from the shade to full light. Reference: (DENR, no date. Mass Propagation and Nursery Management of Dipterocarps. DENR Recommends No. 6. DENR, Quezon City). PLANTING. Enrichment plantings of dipterocarps under the canopy of nurse trees is usually practiced. Use of potted stocks is preferred; planting holes should be deep enough to accommodate the ball of earth; fertilizers should be included particularly for poor sites; the soil is firmed to close the air spaces and mulched with organic material to conserve moisture and provide additional nutrients. Suppress competing weeds by regular weeding and cleaning. Poles should be provided greater light to promote growth. Reference: Weinland, 1998. A Review of Dipterocarps: Taxonomy, ecology and silviculture. Eds: Appanah, S. and Turnbull, J. M. CIFOR and FRIM.

WOOD USES: For high-grade cigar boxes, furniture and cabinet works; piano cases musical instruments, interior finish (sheathing and ceiling), carving and sculpture, paddles and light oars, drawing boards, wardrobe and clothes chests, insect boxes, dugout canoes, planking and the interior finish of pleasure boats and small launches NON-WOOD USES: Medicinal: Flower decoctions for antipasmodic. Bark decoctions have astringent and antiseptic properties.
moderately coarse to coarse
dark reddish brown
31.9 (g) and 53.3 (12)
61700 (g) and 74700 (12)

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